The overlap of contractual power through cooperation between Congress and the executive branch in international agreements is also highlighted by the use of resolutions that endorse U.S. membership in international organizations458 and participation in international conventions.459 Almost all decisions of the Convention tend to be a strong executive. Delegates agreed on a single executive and refused a triumvirate, probably because they agreed with delegates who warned of violent dissent and the spread of responsibilities. After months of anger at the irritating election issue, they finally bet on special presidential voters with a backstop of the House of Representatives, when no candidate won a majority of the elections. This selection process, coupled with a guaranteed salary, a long term and no term limits, led to an independent executive who was not elected to Congress. 82 Hathaway, supra note 1, at 1259 (“[S]eparating executive agreements that are congressionally authorized from those that are not required a akribisch search for authorizing legislation. In order to determine whether an agreement is an agreement between Congress and the executive branch, it is necessary to go through The Statutes of Large before the effective date of the agreement for terms related to this topic. It is then necessary to read each statute to determine whether it actually approves the relevant international agreements. (Footnote omitted). This article is based on an analysis of the survival period and shows that contracts are more sustainable obligations than executive agreements. In particular, there was a 15% probability that a standard contract concluded in 1982 failed until 2012, compared to a 50% probability that it would fail as an executive contract. The results are consistent with the fact that treaties remain an important political instrument for the United States, as they are a qualitatively different promise from a promise made in the form of an ex ante agreement between Congress and the executive branch. To illustrate this, you should go back to the negotiations on SALT II and SORT, where Russia insisted on the implementation of a treaty of agreement between Congress and the Executive. Without the availability of the contractual instrument, it would be possible for the parties to have entered into agreements with different substantive conditions.